Journalism and Mass Communication, ISSN 2160-6579, USA
Journalism and Mass Communication, a professional academic journal, commits itself to
promoting the academic communication about recent developments on Journalism and Mass
Communication, covers all sorts of research on journalism, radio and television journalism, new
media, news ethics and regulations, the integration of media and culture and other relevant areas
and tries to provide a platform for experts and scholars worldwide to exchange their latest
email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org – for all general enquiries.
Submission of Manuscript
The manuscript should be original, and has not been published previously. Do not submit
material that is currently being considered by another journal. The manuscript should be submitted
as an email attachment to our email address: email@example.com;
Review Procedure and Editorial Policy
Journalism and Mass Communication is a refereed journal. All research articles in this journal
undergo rigorous peer review, based on initial editor screening and anonymous refereeing by at
least two anonymous referees.
1. The manuscript should be in MS Word format.
2. The manuscript should be written in APA Style, you rarely use the first person point of view
(I studied ...). First person is not often found in APA publications unless the writer is a senior
scholar who has earned some credibility to speak as an expert in the field. You should use the third
person point of view (The study showed ...) unless you are co-authoring a paper with at least one
other person, in which case you can use ―we‖ (Our finding included ...). In general, you should
foreground the research and not the researchers.
However, it is a common misconception that foregrounding the research requires using the
passive voice (Experiments have been conducted ...). This is inaccurate. APA Style encourages
using the active voice (We conducted an experiment ...). The active voice is particularly
important in experimental reports, where the subject performing the action should be clearly
identified (e.g., We interviewed ... vs. The participants responded ...).
3. The title should be on page 1 and not exceed 15 words, and should be followed by an
abstract of 100-200 words. 3-5 keywords are required.
4. Manuscripts may be 3000-12000 words or longer if approved by the editor, including an
abstract, texts, tables, footnotes, appendixes, and references.
5. We will charge some fee if the paper is published in our journal.
Footnotes and Endnotes
APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive
for publishers to reproduce. However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document,
APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.
When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost
any punctuation mark. Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a
sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses. E.g.,
Scientists examined—over several years1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.2
(These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.3)
When using the footnote function in a word-processing program like Microsoft Word, place all
footnotes at the bottom of the page on which they appear. Footnotes may also appear on the final
page of your document (usually this is after the References page). Center the word ―Footnotes‖ at
the top of the page. Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote. Then, follow normal
paragraph spacing rules.
Content Notes: Content Notes provide supplemental information to your readers. When providing
Content Notes, be brief and focus on only one subject. Try to limit your comments to one small
paragraph. Content Notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail
Copyright Permission Notes: If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think
you may be in violation of ―Fair Use‖ copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the
author(s). All other sources simply appear in the reference list. Follow the same formatting rules
as with Content Notes for noting copyright permissions. Then attach a copy of the permission
letter to the document.
If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a
special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information. You should also submit
written permission along with your work. Begin the citation with ―Note.‖ E.g.,
Note. From ―Title of the article,‖ by W. Jones and R. Smith, 2007, Journal Title, 21, p. 122.
Copyright 2007 by Copyright Holder. Reprinted with permission.
All non-standard abbreviations must first appear in parentheses following their meaning written
in full at first mention in the Abstract, main text and each table and figure legend. Subsequently,
only abbreviations can be used.
While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this
document does not focus on this particular species.
2 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters three and four, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.
1. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information
necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each
source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the
reference list must be cited in your text.
2. References centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks
for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
3. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half
inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
4. Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of
a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors,
list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list
the last author’s name of the work.
5. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each
6. If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or
multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order
by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.
7. When referring to any work that is NOT a journal, such as a book, article, or Web page,
capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or
a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a
hyphenated compound word.
8. Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
9. Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
10. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal
articles or essays in edited collections.
In References List:
Akhavan-Majid, R. (1998). Role perceptions as predictors of editors’ job satisfaction. Newspaper Research
Journal, 19, 85-92.
Barrett, G. (1984). Job satisfaction among newspaperwomen. Journalism Quarterly, 61(3), 593-599.
Beam, R. (2006). Organizational goals and priorities and the job satisfaction of U.S. journalists. Journalism and
Mass Communication Quarterly, 83(1), 169-185.
Bramlett-Solomon, S. (1992). Predictors of job satisfaction among black journalists. Journalism and Mass
Communication Quarterly, 69(3), 703-712.
Brief, A., Butcher, A., & Roberson, L. (1995). Cookies, disposition, and job attitudes: The effects of positive
mood-inducing events and negative affectivity on job satisfaction in a field experiment. Organizational
Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 62(1), 55-62.
Boczkowski, P. (2004). The processes of adopting multimedia and interactivity in three online newsrooms.
Journal of Communication, 54(2), 197-213.
Cook, B., & Banks, S. (1993). Predictors of job burnout in reporters and copy editors. Journalism Quarterly, 70(1),
Dahlgren, P. (2009). The troubling evolution of Journalism. In B. Zelizer (Ed.), The changing faces of journalism:
Tabloidization, technology and truthiness (pp. 146-161). London: Routledge.
De Bens, E. (1983). Het profiel van de beroepsjournalist in Vlaanderen (The profile of the professional journalist
in Flanders). Brussel: VUB Uitgaven.
De Bens, E. (1995). Het profiel van de Vlaamse dagbladjournalist (The profile of the Flemish newspaper
journalist). Communication, culture, community: Liber amicorum James Stappers (pp. 263-277). Nijmegen:
Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
Defleur, M. (1992). Foundations of job satisfaction in the media industries. Journalism Educator, 47(1), 3-15.
Deuze, M. (2002). Journalists in the Netherlands: An analysis of the people, the issues and the (inter-)national
environment. Amsterdam: Aksant.
Greenberg, N., Thomas, S., Murphy, D., & Dandeker, C. (2007). Occupational stress and job satisfaction in media
personnel assigned to the Iraq war (2003): A qualitative study. Journalism Practice, 1(3), 356-371.
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The motivation to work. New York: Wiley.
Janson, P. (1982). Job satisfaction and age: A test of two views. Social Forces, 60(4), 1089-1102.
Jenkins, S. (1994). Need for power and women’s careers over 14 years: Structural power, job satisfaction, and
motive change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(1), 155-165.
Johnstone, J., Slawski, E., & Bowman, W. (1976). The news people: A sociological portrait of American
journalists and their work. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Kalleberg, A. (1977). Work values and job rewards: a theory of job satisfaction. American Sociological Review, 42,
Kelly, J. (1989). Gender, pay and job satisfaction of faculty in journalism. Journalism and Mass Communication
Quarterly, 66(2), 446-452.
Levin, I., & Stokes, J. (1989). Dispositional approach to job satisfaction: Role of negative affectivity. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 74(5), 752-758.
Locke, E. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and
organizational psychology (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.
Man Chan, J., Pan, Z., & Lee, F. (2004). Professional aspirations and job satisfaction: Chinese journalists at a time
of change in the media. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 254-273.
Meier, K. (2007). Innovations in Central European newsrooms: Overview and case study. Journalism Practice,