Paper Status Tracking

Article
Author(s)

Douglas Wilbur

Affiliation(s)

The University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri, USA

ABSTRACT

Employing inductive framing analysis and Entman’s theory of framing, this project examines how the U.S. mainstream media defined Iraq-Afghanistan Veterans and their problems. This study used inductive framing analysis with a sample of 180 articles from seven major newspapers and two wire services. The findings revealed five dominant frames: broken veteran, disoriented veteran, fighting the bureaucratic enemy, overwhelmed family, and the financial hardship frames. Two counter-frames that attempted to challenge the dominant frames were identified: moral obligation to help and the healing counter-frames. The finding of this research indicates that while news frames of Iraq-Afghanistan Veterans skew negative, these news frames are not as negative as one might suspect. Thus, veterans’ groups, government agencies, and interested political actors need to sponsor counter-frames that emphasize the stability and employability of these veterans.

KEYWORDS

Inductive framing analysis, combat veterans, public relations

Cite this paper

Sociology Study, April 2016, Vol. 6, No. 4, 267-276

References

Abdullah, H. 2011. “Veterans, Like Ronald Williams, Return to Less-Than-Hopeful Job Market.” Ledger-Enquirer, June 8. Retrieved (http://www.ledger-enquirer.com/2011/06/08/ 1609932/veterans-like-williams-return.html).

Adams, A. A. 1977. “A Study of Veterans Viewpoints on TV Coverage of the Vietnam War.” Journalism Quarterly 54(2):248.

Adams, C. 2013. “Millions Went to War in Iraq, Afghanistan, Leaving Many With Lifelong Scars.” McClatchy Newspapers, March 14. Retrieved (http://www.mcclatchydc. com/2013/03/14/185880/millions-went-to-war-in-iraq-afghanistan.html#storylink=cpy).

Beckstead, B. 2013. “Veterans Find Peace at Base Camp Serenity Retreat on S. Lawrence River.” Watertown Daily Times, August 11, p. B2.

Booke, E. 2012. “Group Based in Dallas Area Helps War Vets Recover Through Fishing.” Dallas Morning News, May 24. Retrieved (http://www.dallasnews.com/news/local-news/ 20120524-group-based-in-dallas-area-helps-war-vets-recover-through-fishing.ece).

Bouvard, M. G. 2012. The Invisible Wounds of War: Coming Home From Iraq and Afghanistan. New York: Prometheus.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). 2016. Employment Situation of Veterans Summary. Retrieved (http://www.bls.gov/ news.release/vet.nr0.htm).

Cameron, P. 2011. “Vets Face Shortage of Therapists: New Program Training Clinicians in Psychology of Combat Is an Attempt to Help Fill the Gap.” Chicago Tribune, July 20. Retrieved (http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-07-20/ news/ct-x-0720-vets-mental-health-20110720_1_vets-soldiers-project-combat).

Charmaz, K. 2006. Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Los Angeles: Sage.

Cohen, S. 2013. “Vet Who Saved Many in Iraq Couldn’t Escape Demons.” Associated Press, March 16. Retrieved (http://bigstory.ap.org/article/vet-who-saved-many-iraq-couldnt-escape-demons-0).

Corbin, J. and A. Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Cose, E. 1989. The Press. New York: Morrow.

Crawford, S. and M. Repko. 2013. “Pair’s Bid to Help Troubled Vet Suspected of Killing Them at Gun Range Doesn’t Surprise Acquaintances.” Dallas Morning News, February 9. Retrieved (http://www.dallasnews.com/news/ crime/headlines/20130209-pairs-bid-to-help-troubled-vet-suspected-of-killing-them-at-gun-range-doesnt-surprise-acquaintances.ece).

Department of Veterans Affairs. 2010. Returning From the War Zone: A Guide for Families of Military Members. Retrieved (http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/returning servicevets. asp).

Einhorn, C. 2011. “Looking After the Soldier, Back Home Damaged.” The New York Times, September 27. Retrieved (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/us/looking-after-the- soldier-back-home-and-damaged.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0).

Eiserer, T. 2011. “Dallas Vet Struggles With Brain Injury, PTSD, VA Medical System.” Dallas Morning News, August 28. Retrieved (http://www.dallasnews.com/news/ community-News/dallas/headlines/20110828-dallas-vet).

Entman, R. 1993. “Framing: Toward Clarification of a Fractured Paradigm.” Journal of Communication 43(4):51-58.

Farnall, O. and K. A. Smith. 1999. “Reactions to People With Disabilities: Personal Contact Versus Viewing of Specific Media Portrayals.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 76(4):659-672.

Frosch, D. 2011. “Marijuana May Be Studied for Combat Disorder.” The New York Times, July 18. Retrieved (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/19/us/19pot.html?_r=0).

Gamson, W. A. 1985. “Goffman’s Legacy to Political Sociology.” Theory and Society 14(5):605-622.

Gamson, W. A. and A. Modigliani. 1989. “Media Discourse and Public Opinion on Nuclear Power: A Constructionist Approach.” American Journal of Sociology 95(1):1-37.

Gitlin, T. 1980. The Whole World Is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.

Glantz, A. 2011. “Troubled Veterans and Early Deaths After Iraq.” The New York Times, May 28. Retrieved (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/29/us/29bcveterans.html? pagewanted=all).

Goffard, J., J. Rubin, and K. Streeter. 2013. “A Double Killing, a Vengeful Plan, a Wave of Fear.” Los Angeles Times, December 2013. Retrieved (http://graphics.latimes.com/ christopher-dorner-manhunt/#chapter-one).

Goode, E. 2011. “Coming Together to Fight for a Troubled Veteran.” The New York Times, July 17. Retrieved (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/18/us/18vets.html?pagewanted=all).

Gradus, J. 2014. “Epidemiology of PTSD.” Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved (http://www.ptsd.va.gov/ professional/PTSD-overview/epidemiological-facts-ptsd.asp).

Henderson, P. and B. Rigby. 2012. “U.S. Troops Numb, Uncertain After Afghan Massacre.” Reuters, March 15. Retrieved (http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/15/us- usa-afghanistan-base-idUSBRE82E0AV20120315).

Henneberger, M. 2013. “Veteran’s Court Program Helps Warrior’s Battle Addiction, Mental Health Crises.” The Washington Post, December 2. Retrieved (http://www. washingtonpost.com/politics/veterans-court-program-helps-warriors-battle-addiction-mental-health-crises/2013/12/02/d44cf352-5b6c-11e3-bf7e-f567ee61ae21_story.html).

Jaffe, G. 2012. “New Name for PTSD Could Mean Less Stigma.” The Washington Post, May 5. Retrieved (http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/new-name-for-ptsd-could-mean-less-stigma/2012/05/05/gIQAlV8M4T_story.html).

Jelinek, P. 2013. “War Zone Killing: Vets Feel ‘Alone’ in Their Guilt.” Associated Press. Retrieved (http://bigstory.ap.org/ article/im-monster-veterans-alone-their-guilt).

Kanyusik, W. 2012. “The Problem of Recognition: The Disabled Male Veteran and Masculinity as Spectacle in William Wyler’s The Best Years of Our Lives.” Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies 6(2):159-174.

Kristof, N. D. 2012. “A Veteran’s Death, the Nation’s Shame.” The New York Times, April 4. Retrieved (http://www. nytimes.com/2012/04/15/opinion/sunday/kristof-a-veterans-death-the-nations-shame.html?pagewanted=all).

Lecheler, S. and C. H. de Vreese. 2012. “News Framing and Public Opinion: A Mediation Analysis of Framing Effects on Political Attitudes.” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 89(2):185-204.

Lozano, M. 2013. “Family Heals Through Wounded Warrior Ski Trip.” Killeen Daily Herald, December 11. Retrieved (http://kdhnews.com/fort_hood_herald/homefront/family-heals-through-wounded-warrior-ski-trip/article_55dcf0d8-61ef-11e3-b8a0-0019bb30f31a.html).

Marcus, R. 2013. “Military Benefits Hurdles Add to Victims’ Abuse.” The Washington Post, October 1. Retrieved (http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/ruth-marcus-another-sorry-chapter-to-militarys-handling-of-sexual-abuse/2013/10/01/a8d3ebf2-2abd-11e3-97a3-ff2758228523_story.html).

McClancy, K. 2013. “The Iconography of Violence: Television, Vietnam, and the Soldier Hero.” Film & History 43(2):50-66.

Nicks, D. 2014. “Suicide Rate Soars Among Young Vets: The Number of Male Veterans Under 30 Ending Their Own Lives Jumps by 44 Percent in Two Years.” Time (online), January 10. Retrieved (http://swampland.time.com/2014/ 01/10/report-suicide-rate-soars-among-young-vets/).

Patterson III, O. 1982. “An Analysis of Coverage of the Vietnam Veteran.” Journalism Quarterly 59(2):308-310.

Pew Research Center. 2011. War and Sacrifice in the Post-9/11 Era: The Military-Civilian Gap. Retrieved (http://www. pewsocialtrends.org/2011/10/05/war-and-sacrifice-in-the-post-911-era).

Philips, M. M. 2012a. “Convicted Vets Watch Each Other’s Backs to Stay out of Prison.” Wall Street Journal, March 24. Retrieved (http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB1000142 4052702303812904577295401873709154).

——. 2012b. “One Taliban Bullet, Two Lives Lost.” Wall Street Journal, May 26. Retrieved (http://online.wsj. com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303978104577361912843069338).

Reese, S. D. 2001. “Prologue—Framing Public Life: A Bridging Model for Media Research.” Pp. 7-31 in  Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and Our Understanding of the Social World, edited by S. D.   Reese, O. Gandy, and A. Grant. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Ritzel, R. 2013. “Trio Galilei: Music to Ears of Wounded Veterans Recuperating at Walter Reed.” The Washington Post, December 20. Retrieved (http://www.washingtonpost. com/entertainment/music/trio-galilei-music-to-the-ears-of-wounded-veterans-recuperating-at-walter-reed/2013/12/19/84fd1b6e-668f-11e3-997b-9213b17dac97_story.html).

Santos, F. 2014. “Program to End Homelessness Among Veterans Reaches a Milestone in Arizona.” The New York Times, January 15. Retrieved (http://www.nytimes.com /2014/01/16/us/program-to-end-homelessness-among-veterans-hits-milestone-in-arizona.html?_r=0).

Smith, J. 1973. “Between Vermont and Violence: Film Portraits of Vietnam Veterans.” Film Quarterly 26(4):10-17.

Tarrant, D. 2011. “A Generation of Warriors Responded to 9/11 With Level of Commitment Seldom Seen.” Dallas Morning News, September 5. Retrieved (http://www. dallasnews.com/news/local-news/20110905-a-generation-of-warriors-responded-to-911-with-level-of-commitment-seldom-seen-.ece).

Torpy, B. 2011. “Veterans Regroup After Life Interrupted.” Atlanta Journal Constitution, November 7. Retrieved (http://www.ajc.com/news/news/local/veterans-regroup-after-life-interrupted/nQNP7/).

Tribe, L. and B. Shriver. 2011. “Why Wounded Warriors Sleep in Dumpsters; The Government Has Failed Homeless Veterans Suffering From Psychological Trauma.” Wall Street Journal, June 9. Retrieved (http://online.wsj. com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304432304576371591562510516).

Van Gorp, B. 2005. “Where Is the Frame?: Victims and Intruders in the Belgian Press Coverage of the Asylum Issue.” European Journal of Communication 20(4):484-507.

Van Gorp, B. and T. Vercruysse. 2012. “Frames and Counter-Frames Giving Meaning to Dementia: A Framing Analysis of Media Content.” Social Science & Medicine 74:1274-1281.

Zavis, A. 2012. “Poverty Growing Among L.A. County Veterans, Study Finds.” Los Angeles Times, November 9. Retrieved (http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2012/11/ los-angeles-county-veterans-poverty.html).

——. 2013. “Iraq Veterans Find the War at Home Is With Red Tape.” Los Angeles Times, December 20. Retrieved (http://www.latimes.com/local/la-me-c1-1220-veterans-backlog-20131219-dto01667083.htmlstory#axzz2twCXUezn).

About | Terms & Conditions | Issue | Privacy | Contact us
Coryright © 2015 David Publishing Company All rights reserved, 616 Corporate Way, Suite 2-4876, Valley Cottage, NY 10989
Tel: 1-323-984-7526, 323-410-1082; Fax: 1-323-984-7374, 323-908-0457 , www.davidpublisher.com, Email: order@davidpublishing.com